Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-19
Downloads: 37


Elias Milios*, Kyriaki Kitikidou, Stelios Chatzakis, and Maria Batziou

Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources,
Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, 682 00 Orestiada, Greece.


The aim of this study was to analyze the diameter structure of a Quercus pubescens-Quercus frainetto remnant forest in Northeastern Greece. The main disturbances acting in the study area are illegal cuttings and grazing. Two site types are found in the studied forest as a result of different grazing pressure. In site type A, where the grazing pressure is not as intense as in site type B, there are Q. pubescens-Q. frainetto degraded stands. Site type B is covered by Q. pubescens degraded stands. In each site type, a square plot of 100×100 m was established. Each plot was divided into four square subplots of 50×50 m (I, II, III and IV subplots), where the breast height diameter of all trees having a diameter equal and over 4 cm was measured. For I, II, III and IV subplots, I+II subplot and I+II+III+IV plot Anderson-Darling statistic was used in order to examine in which typical distribution their diameter distribution fits better. This procedure took place for the investigation of diameter structure spatial heterogeneity. Both species, in all plots, present low basal area and do not exhibit large diameters. The main conclusion of this study is that there is a significant spatial heterogeneity in the tree diameter structure. This heterogeneity is a combination of different forms of diameter distributions as well as of differences in basal area in the different plots. In site type B the spatial heterogeneity is more intense than in site type A if the form of the diameter distributions is considered as the main criterion for the heterogeneity assessment. On the other hand, the heterogeneity is higher in site type A if only the differences among the basal areas of subplots of 50×50 m are taken into account. The understanding of the structure of these rare for Greece stands will contribute to the protection and sustainable management of them as well as of analogous ecosystems.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 32


Victoria D. Gorbunova (1), Sergei L. Menschikov (1), and Sezgin Ayan (2*)

1. Laboratory of Anthropogenic Plant Communities, Botanical garden of Ural branch RAS,
Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation.

2. Kastamonu University, Faculty of Forestry, Silviculture Department, Kastamonu, Turkey.  *E-mail:


Latitude and altitude affect the geographical distribution of plant communities on Earth from the equator to the poles. While latitude has influence on the horizontal distribution, the altitude confines the vertical range of plant communities, shaping the floral composition and their eco-physiological features such as macronutrients that control the growth. In this research, the effects of different altitude gradients on plant macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na) content in leaves of two different birch species (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and B. pendula Roth) distributed in the Northern Urals region were investigated for two years. Tree leaves were collected in growing seasons in 2006 and 2008, and all measured macronutrients concentration levels were compared according to altitude and year, respectively. As a result, leaf concentration of N and P were increased by altitude in Downy birch (B. pubescens), while the macronutrient concentration levels were decreased in Silver birch (B. pendula) species. In addition, although concentration of N, P, and K levels changed in both species, the N concentration level was not significantly changed in two years. Moreover, N, P, K, and Mg concentration levels in the leaves of Silver birch increased from 2006 to 2008. This reason was likely due to the later start of the growing season and higher percentage of humidity in 2006. Consequently, altitude gradients played a significant role on macronutrient contents of birch species’ leaves.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 26


Sergiy Musienko, Oleksandr Lyalin, Ludmila Tkach, Vira Bondarenko*,
Marina Kolenkina, and Oksana Tarnopilska

O. M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, 17, Marshal Bazhanov Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine.  *E-mail:


The objects of the study were the forests in different natural zones in Ukraine. The aim was to reveal the relations between forest cover of water catchments of about 50 rivers of Dnipro, South Bug, Desna, and Siversky Donets basins in different natural zones and the components of water balance, atmospheric precipitations, surface, subsurface and total runoff and evapotranspiration. It was revealed that due to the increase in forest cover up to 20–25 % there was an increase in precipitation up to 95 % in all natural zones of Ukraine. However, further increase in the forest cover did not significantly affect it. The maximum amount of surface runoff (up to 90 %) absorbed by forests was detected when an increase in forest cover was up to 20 % in the steppe part of Ukraine and up to 50 % in Polissya zone. The highest increase in total evaporation – up to 60 % – can be observed if the forest cover increases up to 20–25 % in the Steppe zone and up to 50 % in Polissya and Forest-Steppe zones. Water conservation functions of catchment forest ecosystems are closely related to their spatial distribution and vegetation development as well as the specificities of economic activities within catchments. Significant improvement of Ukrainian rivers is impossible without sustainable management of the territory and increasing its forest cover to certain – optimal or minimum required – level. In this case, a small river catchment is to be the primary territorial unit for land and forest management. Water system sustainability and floodplain agricultural land improvement require complete afforestation of the meandering zones of rivers, as well as meander bars, dead stream branches, coasts of lakes, and scrublands.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 29


Stoyan Stoyanov

Wildlife Management Dept., University of Forestry, 10 St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail:


The expansion of golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758) in Europe in the last decades has triggered research interest. Many aspects of jackal’s ecology, diet, population density, genetics, legal implications of range expansion and management have been studied thoroughly. However, very few studies have focused on body morphometrics. Bulgarian territory is considered the core area of golden jackal distribution in Europe with the highest population density, but morphometric studies including data about Bulgarian population were very scarce and local so far. The present study proposes the first comprehensive analysis of golden jackal morphometrics in Bulgaria, trying to clarify body shape and size related variability and differentiation. Morphometric data were analysed by applying recently developed statistical tools to respond to the following questions: (i) is there geographic variation in body size and shape among golden jackal population in Bulgaria, (ii) are there age-related differences and at what age jackals reach full growth of the body, and (iii) how pronounced is the sexual dimorphism in body shape and size among adult jackals? The body measurements of 87 golden jackals, collected all over the country were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. Body size and shape of golden jackal in Bulgaria show considerable individual variability, but weak intrapopulation differentiation. The differences in shape and size of the jackal body, as far as they exist, are age-related, but only 5–6 months old animals could be easily distinguished. Body growth ends at 10 months of age, but even 7–9 months old jackals are difficult to distinguish from the adults in the field. Sexual dimorphism in jackal’s body is weakly pronounced, with older males a little bit larger than females. The results are consistent with recent genetic and morphological studies and give further insights on patterns in variability and population structure of golden jackal in Bulgaria.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 38


Roya Abedi (1*) and Tooba Abedi (2)

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Forestry, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, University of Tabriz, Iran. *E-mail:

2. Environmental Research Institute, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Iran


The main goal of this study was to achieve a set of the main key to sustainable urban forest indicators by using Fuzzy Delphi method – Iran perspective. The questionnaires were developed based on the ecological (sub-criteria including urban trees biodiversity, trees canopy coverage, flood control, species habitat provision, carbon storage and greenhouse gases sequestration), social (sub-criteria including physical assess to nature, visual assess to nature, increasing growing space in the city, air quality improvement and danger probability of urban trees) and economic criteria (sub-criteria including energy conservation and increase property value) and 13 experts in the field of forest sciences were chosen to sit on the panel of experts. The results of this study showed that carbon storage and greenhouse gases sequestration (final weight = 0.25) in ecological sub-criteria, air quality improvement (final weight = 0.24) in social and energy conservation (final weight = 0.66) in economic criterion has the first level of importance in each criterion. The results demonstrate that urban forests not only beautify the landscape, they even play a major role in ecological, social and economic values. The results of this study will be implemented in urban forests developing projects by helping in suggesting proper tree species to maximize all of the indicators factors investigated in this study.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 1) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-19