Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15
Downloads: 1035

Soil properties of the most productive Tuber aestivum habitats from midpart of Western Bulgaria

Teodor Nedelin, Kameliya Petrova, and Slavcho Savev

Forestry University, Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail*:,

Only recently, truffle hunting in Bulgaria has established itself as an important source of income and due to the specific socio-economic aspects, there is a tendency for continuous increase of the truffle hunters’ number. Tuber aestivum is the most important commercial truffle in Bulgaria. Because truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi, at least part of their life cycle is related to plant partner, which in most cases is a tree species. Among those factors that affect growth and distribution of vegetation and of Tuber host plants, are pedoclimatic conditions. They are determined from a large extent on geographical and orographic characteristics, creating specific microclimatic conditions suitable for Tuber fruitbodies development. In this study we focus on various soil properties of the most productive T. aestivum habitats from midpart of Western Bulgaria. We have used Principal component and classification analysis (PCA) to determine the most important soil factors for fruitbody formation. The common feature of the most productive T. aestivum habitats from midpart of Western Bulgaria are high cation exchange capacity values (CEC) and low CaCO3 content. Moreover, our research confirms that Ca2+, total organic carbon and total nitrogen are among the most important factors for T. aestivum production. The results extend our knowledge on T. aestivum ecology and can be used to select the best areas for establishing truffle plantations in Bulgaria.

Received: 14 July 2022 / Accepted: 15 November 2022 / Available online: 22 November 2022

(Forestry Ideas, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 23

Habitat preferences by Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) on the Lička Plješivica massif (Dinaric Alps)

Krešimir Krapinec (1)*, Maja Sabljak (2), Josip Prebanić (3), Ivica Serdar (3),
and Dean Konjević (4)

1. Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood
Technology, 23 Svetošimunska Str., 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail:
2. Nature Park ‘Lonjsko polje‘, 16 Krapje Str., 44324 Jasenovac, Croatia. E-mail:
3. Forest Administration Gospić, Croatian Forests Ltd, 23 Budačka Str., 53000 Gospić, Croatia.
4. Department of Veterinary Economics and Epidemiology, University of Zagreb, Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine, 55 Heinzelova Str., 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail:


The Western capercaillie is a large galliform bird whose populations are declining in Europe. By the middle of the 20th century it was present on six massifs of the Dinaric Alps in Croatia. In the meantime, the capercaillie has disappeared from two massifs and lek numbers have fallen by 77 %. The only area where lek numbers have increased is the Lička Plješivica, a massif on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this study we applied ENFA analysis to evaluate the habitat suitability for capercaillie on the Lička Plješivica massif. The habitat analysis showed that the capercaillie prefers steeper terrain and ridges, forest roads as well as forest associations with higher basal areas, and it avoids grasslands. The capercaillie in general prefers areas with a cold and humid climate. However, compared to the boreal region, the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, the capercaillie shows a certain habitat preference for the Dinaric Alps. In conclusion, the high suitability of the habitat and its connection to the Bosnia-and-Herzegovinian capercaillie population are probably the causes underlying the increase in the capercaillie population on the Lička Plješivica massif.

Received: 05 October 2021 / Accepted: 05 December 2022 / Available online: 08 December 2022

(Forestry Ideas, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 18

Genetic analysis of selected high-yielding oleoresin trees of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.)

Maria Tsaktsira (1), Christoforos Karanikas (1), Dimitrios Mitras (1), Peter Zhelev (2), and Apostolos Scaltsoyiannes (1)


1. School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124
Thessaloniki, Greece. E-mail:
2. University of Forestry, 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria.


Oleoresin, a quantitative trait with great variability, is the most important non-wood product of  Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.). That being so, and the fact that oleoresin’s added value has risen lately, the primary objective of this research was the selection of high-yielding (plus) and low-yielding oleoresin (control) Aleppo pine trees from two Greek populations (Chalkidiki  and Euboea) and their genetic analysis with isozymes. The hypothesis tested was whether certain genetic parameters such as heterozygosity and fixation index F, are different between plus and control trees in the two populations. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used in order to analyze the endosperms of the selected trees. Eleven enzyme systems were applied which resulted in 17 loci with 33 alleles. The mean expected heterozygosity was high for all groups of trees. No differences were found among mean fixation indices F across all groups of trees but a tendency was detected at certain loci between the two populations. Furthermore, a first analysis for the discrimination and the fingerprinting of certain selected trees was performed with molecular markers (RAPDs). In total, six primers were applied which resulted in 68 loci. The discrimination and fingerprinting of the selected trees were successful using just 9 loci. The results imply that since there is great variability in oleoresin yield and high expected heterozygosity among the plus trees of the Greek Aleppo pine populations, a breeding program in order to increase the oleoresin yield should be conducted.

Received: 04 September 2021 / Accepted: 06 December 2022 / Available online: 08 December 2022

(Forestry Ideas, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 17

Artificial intelligence-based image processing for hazard identification in forestry operations – а sawmill case study

Jing Gao (1)*, Jim O’Hehir (1), Raufdeen Rameezdeen (1), Christopher W.K. Chow (1), and Ang Yang (2)

1. University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd Mawson Lakes SA Australia, Australia. *E-mail:
2. Dalian Maritime University, 1 Linghai Rd, Ganjingzi District, Dalian, Liaoning, China.


Monitoring forestry workers’ safety through early warning and detection systems has potential to improve conditions and reduce costs incurred from preventable accidents and injuries (savings up to 0.5 million USD per annum) during timber harvesting and processing operations. This project has a primary goal of understanding the needs, challenges, and opportunities of using artificial intelligence image processing for hazard monitoring and developing a workwear embedded with such technology for sawmilling operations in order to ensure the wellbeing of the workers. The underlying algorithm can be further developed to be implemented with forklift mounted cameras and other wearable safety devices. The positive research findings can also be applied in other forestry environments such as harvesting where safety management for human and vehicle interactions are required.

Received: 14 July 2022 / Accepted: 08 December 2022 / Available online: 09 December 2022

(Forestry Ideas, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 24

Physiological aspects of natural regeneration in coppiced forest dominated by Quercus frainetto Ten. and Quercus cerris L.

Kristiyan Kolev (1,2) and Svetoslav Anev (1)

1. University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria.
2. Forest Research Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 132 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria. *E-mail:


Comparison study of some physiological parameters of natural generative regeneration of Quercus frainetto Ten. (QF) and Quercus cerris L. (QC) was conducted in situ in an oak-dominated old coppiced forest. Gas exchange levels and sapling leaf pigment content were assessed simultaneously under the canopy (C-site) and in a gap (G-site) open in the stand two years before measurement. Differences in maximum photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rd), determined by light-response regressions were compared to evaluate leaves’ carbon balance. Transpiration rate (E) and water use efficiency (WUE) were analyzed to compare changes in water regimes. Total chlorophyll content (TCC) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were monitored on the same plants. Species-specific responses to changed micro-condition after a canopy opening were observed. Both elements of the carbon balance (Amax and Rd) change much more substantially in QF leaves compared to QC in G-site. At the same time, the QF has a greater difference of E in the G-site compared to the C-site than in the QC. Such leads to a flattening of the WUE between two species at the G-site, in a background of a higher WUE of QF in the C-site. However, QF has similar, although not higher, TCC levels as in QC, as well as NDVI in G-site, compared to C-site.

Received: 25 August 2022 / Accepted: 12 December 2022 / Available online: 14 December 2022

(Forestry Ideas, 2022, Vol. 28, No. 2) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15