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Orchids of Buzuluk pine forest in South-east of European Russia: diversity and conservation issues

Olga G. Kalmykova and Nataliya O. Kin

Department of Landscape Ecology, Institute for Steppe Research, Russian Academy of Sciences
– Ural Branch, 460000 Orenburg, Russia. E-mails:*,


The data on orchid diversity of Buzuluk pine forest located in the South-east of European Russia on the border of steppe and forest-steppe zones have been summarised and updated. The occurrence of 12 Orchidaceae species can be reliably confirmed for this territory. This collection of species could be regarded as unique for such climatic and geographical conditions. Such a variety of orchids within the same Anatural site cannot be found anywhere else in Orenburg region, and in Samara region there are only few of similar locations. About half of the orchid species indicated for Orenburg and Samara regions are found in Buzuluk pine forest. Hemipilia cucullata and Hammarbya paludosa on the territory of Orenburg region and Corallorhiza trifida on the territory of Samara region are known only from Buzuluk pine forest. All the orchids found there are included in IUCN Red List. Four species are listed in Red Data Book of Russian Federation. Most of the species (except Epipactis helleborine) are in the regional Red Data Books, making up more than half of all protected species for each region. Orchids occur in localities near residential areas, in places visited by tourists, in the utility zone of the national park (where logging is carried out or may be carried out), in locations with unstable water regime, which may threaten their survival on this territory. All the orchids found in this woodland have at least one locality on the territory of Buzuluk Pine Forest National Park. The problems of the orchid conservation can be attributed to the insufficient knowledge of their populations (number, density, etc.), and the intensive development of oil production, tourism and recreation over the last decade.

Received: 30 March 2022 / Accepted: 27 February 2023 / Available online: 08 March 2023

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 1) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-6