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INVENTORIES OF CAUSES OF LEAF SCORCH OF LINDEN TREES UNDER ANTHROPOGENIC CONDITIONS IN KYIV

Oleksandr V. Sovakov(1), Maria O. Sovakova(1), Oleksandr S. Ostapchuk(2), Dmytro I. Bidolakh(3)*, Svitlana M. Pidkhovna(3), and Oleg I. Kytaiev(4)

1. Forest Restoration and Meliorations Department, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 19 Heneral Rodimtsev Str., Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: sovakov@nubip.edu.ua
2. Forestry Department, Uman National University of Horticulture, 1 Institutska Str., Uman, Cherkasy region, Ukraine. E-mail: ostapchyk1958@gmail.com
3. Department of Forestry and Landscape-park Management, Separated Subdivision of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 20 Academichna Str., Berezhany, Ternopil region, Ukraine. *E-mail: dimbid@ukr.net
4. Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 23 Sadova Str., Kyiv-27, Ukraine. E-mail: o_kitaev@i.ua

Abstract:

Linden species (Tilia spp.) are the most spread woody species in the street side plantings in Kyiv. It is determined that all linden species that grow along streets or sidewalks are in a poor state. The visual signs of scorch varied from severe to minimal damages (leaves collected in different parts of city). The control samples were collected in the conditions with minimal level of anthropogenic pressure (stands in the city outskirts). These were healthy leaves, without any visual signs of biotic or abiotic damages. In the leaves with maximal level of necrosis and chlo- rosis damages (to 90 % of leaf blade area) we found very high level of sodium ions and minimal level of potassium ions. Consequently, there is ionic imbalance in plant tissues – potassium ions are substituted for sodium ions. These chemical elements are monovalent and in the process of nutrient uptake the plant does not differentiate them. Accumulation of Na+ ions and decrease of К+ ions is typical to all the linden species growing along streets. Little-leaf linden is the most sus- ceptible to salt contamination; however, it is an aboriginal species in Kyiv city conditions. Absence of biotic origin of necrosis and chlorosis on linden leaves is confirmed by luminescent analysis of photosynthetic apparatus – photo- and thermoinduction of chlorophyll fluorescence. Consequent- ly, the results of conducted research allow to state that lindens are not suitable for growing in salt contaminated soils. In anthropogenically transformed (urban) conditions it is reasonable to select salt-tolerant wood species.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 120

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENTS IN A FOREST PLANTATION AND OTHER REAL ESTATES IN BULGARIA
 

Nikolay Stoenchev(1), Konstantin Kolev(1), Nasko Iliev(3), and Yana Hrischeva(2)*
 

1. Department of Economics and Management of Natural Resources, University of Forestry, 10 K. Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria.
2. Department of Real Estate Property, University of National and World Economy, Students Town, 8th December Str., 1700 Sofia, Bulgaria. *E-mail: hrischeva.y@abv.bg
3. Department of Silviculture, University of Forestry, 10 K. Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract:

A comparative analysis of the rate of return on investments in a fast-growing poplar planta- tion in South Bulgaria and in two-room residential apartments in Sofia (average area 68 sq.m.) (including a room and a bedroom), differentiated by districts has been made. The investigation is based on the concept accepted in the normative basis, which determined these kinds of estates as real. It is motivated by the necessity to reveal suitable and perspective variants for invest- ments, according to the utilities and abilities of a wide range of potential investors. Both static and dynamic methods have been applied for assessment of the rate of return on investments in a medium-period perspective. As a result of the carried out investigations it is determined that the rate of return is 4.01 % and it is expected to raise along with raising of the demand of poplar wood material. The advantage of this kind of investment is that it does not require a large amount of capital; it is ecological and allows using lands in rural areas. The rate of return of investment in residential real estates varies from 6.27 % to 15.26 % depending on the location and the result is always positive.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 105

THE GROUND BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) FROM A SIGNIFICANT, BUT POORLY STUDIED REGION IN NW BULGARIA. PART 1: TAXONOMIC, FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHIC NOTES
 

Teodora Teofilova(1)* and Nikolay Kodzhabashev(2)

1 .Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research (IBER), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), 1, Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria. *Е-mail: oberon_zoo@abv.bg
2. Department of Hunting and Game Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, 10, Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria. Е-mail: ndkodjak@abv.bg

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the first study on the ground beetle fauna in the region of the Zlatiya Plateau. It aimed at clarifying the species composition and analyzing the zoogeographical structure of the carabid fauna followed by a subsequent assessment of the environmental trends and the extent of anthropogenic impact. Field work was carried out in the period March – October 2008. Ground beetles were collected with pitfall traps in 8 sampling sites representing the differ- ent types of habitats in the area. A total of 6598 adult carabid specimens were captured. They belonged to 138 species, 49 genera, and 20 tribes, representing almost 19 % of the species, 39 % of the genera and 56 % of the tribes included in the list of carabids of Bulgaria. The most species-rich was the genus Harpalus (25 species), followed by the genera Amara (14 species), Ophonus (13 species) and Pterostichus (11 species). The most abundant in specimens was the genus Harpalus (2461 ex.). The most abundant species were: Harpalus tardus (908 ex.), Harpalus rufipes (829 ex.), Calathus fuscipes (567 ex.), Brachinus crepitans (414 ex.), Pterostichus melas (355 ex.), Abax carinatus (348 ex.), Ophonus laticollis (199 ex.), Anchomenus dorsalis (168 ex.), Carabus coriaceus (168 ex.). For Ophonus convexicollis, а second certain location for Bulgaria was reported. Six species were new for the whole Bulgarian Danubian Plain: Leistus ferrugineus, Amara sabulosa, Harpalus melancholicus, Pangus scaritides, Microlestes fulvibasis, Microlestes minutulus. Remarkably, 120 species were new for the Western Danubian Plain, where the studied site is located. Most of the species were European-Neareastern (18 %), European and Central Asian (18 %), and Palearctic (12 %).

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 100

ASSESSMENT OF THE METAL CONCENTRATION IN YANTRA RIVER WITHIN AN AREA WITH ACTIVE ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE
 

Silviya Lavrova(1)*, Stela Georgieva(2), and Kristina Gartsiyanova(3)

1. University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Environmental Engineering, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria. *E-mail: engeco2001@uctm.edu
2. University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Analytical Chemistry,

8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria.
3. National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Department of Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIGGG-BAS), Sofia, Bulgaria, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl. 3, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria.

Abstract:

The anthropogenic pollution of the Yantra River was assessed during six year period (2013– 2018) in terms of metals in key sites along the river, pointed near to industrial activities, municipal effluents and pollution from tributaries in the catchment area. The assessment of metal concentrations in the water samples was made in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC – Water Framework Directive and its equivalent criteria transposed into the Water Law in Bulgaria. The results show that the concentrations of metals, such as Hg and Cd, were above the permissible limits of the Bulgarian surface water standard especially in S1 point (the Yantra River near Debe- letz). The application of hierarchical cluster analysis for the interpretation of a large and complex dataset obtained during a monitoring program of surface water in the Yantra River is presented in this study. The hierarchical clustering of data shows a correlation between Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, Ca, Zn, which proves that the increase of Fe concentration could be mainly related to the increased number of the landfills and the unregulated pollution of the catchment area. The overall quality of the Yantra river water corresponds to the descriptive indicator of ‘very good’ water despite the numerous populated places and industrial activities on the territory of the Yantra River basin. The obtained results would be useful in an in-depth future assessment of the general condition of the Yantra River system.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 114

LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FROM ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY
IN EUROPEAN UNION, THEIR ADAPTATION CHALLENGES AND ASSOCIATED GAPS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PAKISTAN CASE STUDY

Arshad Ali*, Marek Vach, and Syed Hassan Ahmed

Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Praha 6-Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic. *E-mail: mr.aali84@gmail.com

Abstract:

This article targets current situation of Restriction of Hazards Substances (RoHS), Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH), Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment’s (WEEE) and Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI) compliance and management in developing countries. The study focus is on adaptation challenges and related environmental protection issues within Pakistan. The emphasis is on how European Union (EU) and other global legislation can mitigate the environmental challenges triggered by EEE (Electrical and Electronic Equipment’s) products if EU practices are considered as a role model for developing countries. The aim of this study is threefold: a) to review the challenges in adaptation of environmental legislation already in place in EU and other countries related to electronic industry; b) to review the existing practices related to EEE’s related environmental and human health hazards within Pakistan; and c) to discuss the recommendations on how the legislations if adopted in a developing countries like Pakistan can minimize the adverse influence of EEE’s on the environment and human health and support national development cause. The study finds that there are huge gaps to reach the optimum level of adequate EEE’s base level management (production) and e-waste recycling. To the best of authors’ knowledge for Pakistan this is the first time a study on adopting key legislations like EU RoHS, EU REACH, and The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform 2010 has been carried out. Similarly, 2019 EEE’s Tsunami (Phthalates invasion) are highlighted for first time for government and policy makers in developing countries like Pakistan. This study recommends that switching to these legislations can be useful to tackle the rapidly growing EEE’s related environmental, public health and other social issues.

(Forestry Ideas, 2020, Vol. 26, No. 2) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 | 21-22