Issues


Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-18
Downloads: 934

VISUAL LANDSCAPE RESOURCE DESIGN
 

Genoveva Tzolova
 

Department of Park and Landscape Design, Faculty of Ecology and Landscape Architecture, University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ochridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail: gevivtz@gmail.com
 

Abstract:

There are numerous design techniques that can be used to reduce the reduce impacts from surface-disturbing projects. The techniques described should be used in conjunction with visual resource contrast rating process wherein both the existing landscape and the proposed development or activity are analyzed for their basic elements of form, line, color, and texture. This discussion of design techniques is broken down into two categories: design fundamentals and design strategies. Design fundamentals are general design principles that can be used for all forms of activity or development, regardless of the resource value being addressed. Applying these three fundamentals will help solve most visual design problems: proper siting or location, reducing unnecessary disturbance, repeating the elements of form, line, color, and texture. Design strategies are more specific activities that can be applied to address visual design problems. Not all of these strategies will be applicable to every proposed project or activity: color selection, earthwork, vegetative manipulation, reclamation/restoration, linear alignment design considerations. The fundamentals and strategies are all interrelated, and when used together, can help resolve visual impacts from proposed activities or developments. The techniques presented are only a portion of the many design techniques available to help reduce the visual impacts resulting from surface-disturbing activities or projects. Further research into planning and design references and/or consultation with professional designers and engineers will help to further reduce the visual impacts of any development.
 

(Forestry Ideas, 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 1160

HEIGHT STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF PURE JUNIPERUS EXCELSA M. BIEB. STANDS IN PRESPA NATIONAL
PARK in GREECE
 

Athanasios Stampoulidis and Elias Milios*
 

Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, 682 00 Orestiada, Greece. *E-mail: emilios@fmenr.duth.gr
 

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze height structure of pure Juniperus excelsa stands in Prespa National Park in Greece. Since many trees in these stands are multi-stemmed, the height structure based on the tallest stem in each tree was chosen as a representative measure of stand structure. During the summer of 2009, a plot of 100 m x 100 m, which was divided in four subplots of 50 m x 50 m, was established in a medium site quality stand, while a plot of 50 m x 50 m was established in a good site quality stand. Moreover, 90 plots of 25 m x 20 m were established in juniper stands and groups having different canopy cover percentage and forms of J. excelsa trees in good and medium site quality areas. In all plots the height of the tallest stem of each tree was measured. In most stands, in both sites, the height class of 5 m dominates in height structure. However, in some cases the class of 3 m dominates in medium site qualities and the class of 7 m in good site qualities. The highest trees found in medium and good site qualities were 12 m and 14 m respectively. The density of J. excelsa groups and stands ranged from 80 to 580 J. excelsa trees per ha. The rather low tree-height of Juniper trees in Prespa National Park as well as the height structure and density of J. excelsa stands are the result of anthropogenic disturbances. The results of this study will contribute to the knowledge and protection of this rare ecosystem in Greece.
 

(Forestry Ideas, 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 1366

THE CONTROL OF OAK MILDEW BY BIOFUNGICIDE
 

Snezana Rajkovic*, Mara Tabakovic-Tosic,
and Vesna Golubovic-Curguz
 

Institute of Forestry, Kneza Viseslava 3, Belgrade, Serbia.
*E-mail: srajkovic1@gmail.com
 

Abstract:

Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. et Maubl. is the most widespread and frequent disease in oak forests.The fungus is primary pathogene attacking plants in all developmental stages. Since it causes the greatest harms on young stands of pedunculate oak, when attacks are strong, chemical protection (treatment by fungicides) is applied. In Serbia fungicides for control of pathogenes in forest ecosystems are not registered. Therefore, it is necessary to select ecotoxicologically favourable fungicides registered in this region and obey FSC policy in application of pesticides. Bionfungicides are used for biological control of fungi causing plant diseases. This paper studies the independent influence of biofungicide AQ10 in concentrations 0.03 g, 0.05 g, and 0.07 g on agent of oak mildew. Preliminary studies of effect of biofungicide AQ10 are conducted by standard OEPP method PP1/69(2) (OEPP/EPPO, 1997) in pedunculate oak nurseries subject to infection potential of parasitic fungus M. alphitoides. Leaf infection was estimated by EPPO method (Guideline for efficacy evaluation of fungicides Podosphaera leucotricha) PP1/69(2); infection intensity was determined by Towsend-Heuberger's method, and efficiency by Abbott's.
 

(Forestry Ideas, 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 2165

EXCHANGES OF CO2 THROUGH THE SOIL-ATMOSPHERE INTERPHASE IN BROADLEAF AUTOCHTHONOUS FORESTS FROM THE NW OF SPAIN (Quercus robur L. or Betula alba L.): INTRA-ANNUAL VARIATIONS
 

Irene Fernandez, Beatriz Carrasco, and Ana Cabaneiro
 

Departamento de Bioquimica del Suelo, Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Apartado 122, E-15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. E-mail: ifernandez@iiag.csic.es
 

Abstract:

It is widely accepted that increasing concentrations of "greenhouse gases" will raise the temperatures of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By acting as C sinks, forest ecosystems can store significant amounts of CO2. There is, therefore, a growing need to evaluate the C cycle in forest ecosystems. Quatification of the C stored in forests, both in plants and soils (global balance between CO2 fixation and CO2 emission), and the knowledge of the main factors affecting net C fluxes in these ecosystems are basic and essential tools to control this environmental problem. This research work encompasses the study of the seasonal variations of the CO2 emissions from soils of two different types of deciduous forests of the temperate-humid zone (Quercus robur L. or Betula alba L.) located in Galicia (Northwestern Spain). With this objective, permanent forest plots were established and in situ determinations of soil CO2 effluxes were assessed using a portable infrared gas analyser. The determinations of the exchanges of this gas through the soil-atmosphere interphase were periodically carried out during a whole year (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in order to quantify the seasonal variations of these soil emissions. The significance of the seasonal variations observed for both types of forests and the implications of the results obtained in the global warming mitigation strategies, as well as the relation of these CO2 effluxes with soil temperature, are discussed.
 

(Forestry Ideas, 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 872

COMPARING THE POTENTIAL Carbon MINERALIZATION ACTIVITY OF THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER TWO BROADLEAF AUTOCHTHONOUS TREE SPECIES FROM THE NW OF SPAIN (Quercus robur L.,
Betula alba L.)
 

Irene Fernandez, Beatriz Carrasco, and Ana Cabaneiro
 

Departamento de Bioquimica del Suelo, Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Apartado 122, E-15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. E-mail: ifernandez@iiag.csic.es
 

Abstract:

The importance of the soil organic matter pool on the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle is clearly reflected by the fact that every year around 10% of the atmospheric C circulates throughout the biomass and the soil. Not only the size of this pool but also the composition and lability of the organic compartments have a notable influence on the soil CO2 emissions, since its nature determines the resident times and persistence of the different C compounds into the soil. Therefore, two different types of deciduous forests of the temperate-humid zone (Quercus robur L. or Betula alba L.) were studied in order to evaluate the biodegradative processes of their soil organic matter. In Galicia (Northwestern Spain), 24 permanent forest plots were established to determine their potential C mineralization activity using long term incubation experiments that were carried out under laboratory controlled conditions. The cumulative data of the potential soil CO2 effluxes were fit to a double exponential kinetic model that considers two C pools of different lability and different instantaneous mineralization rates in order to estimate the labile and recalcitrant C pools in these soils. Differences on the total soil C content as well as on the soil organic matter mineralization kinetics between both forest types were found and the implications of the results obtained in the global warming mitigation strategies are discussed. The results obtained are useful not only to evaluate the quantity of CO2 released to the atmosphere from these Atlantic forests but also to contribute to a better prediction of the C balance in a global warming scenario.
 

(Forestry Ideas, 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-18