Issues: 1-5 | 6-9
Downloads: 385


Lubcho Trichkov (1) and Vania Kachova (2)*

1. Projects and International Activities Directorate, Executive Forest Agency –Bulgarian Ministry of
Agriculture and Food, 55 Hristo Botev Blvd., 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail:
2. Forest Genetics, Physiology and Plantations Department, Forest Research Institute – Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences, 132 St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria.


By its nature agroforestry is a form of multifunctional, environmentally friendly and sustainable
land management and could provide good income, employment, economic and social stability in
many less favoured rural and mountainous areas in Bulgaria. Achievements, policies, legislation,
financial instruments and prospects for the development of agroforestry in Bulgaria are reviewed.
The review underlines the priorities and opportunities, such as development of agroforestry in
mountainous areas of the country; renovation and establishment of new forest protective belts
and coastal buffer agroforestry systems; introducing of new agroforestry practices in production
of fruit productive trees with high value timber, and in the forest farms. We are pointing out the
need for a comprehensive strategy and policy in this field, for facilitating financial access, and for
introducing of an assessment system for “good practices” and new agroforestry technologies.
Implementation of agroforestry systems in the practice would have important economic, environmental
and social impact on the development of local communities and the society as a whole.

(Forestry Ideas, 2016, Vol. 22, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 393


Aneliya Penchevа (1) and Mariya Yovkova (2)

1. Department of Plant Pathology and Chemistry, Faculty of Ecology and Landscape Architecture.
University of Forestry. 10 St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria.
2. Institute of Ornamental Plants – 1222 Sofia, Negovan, Bulgaria.


In this study, the results of recent surveys (during the period between 2012 and 2015) on alien
insects infesting ornamental plants in Bulgaria are reported. Fourteen species, associated with urban
landscape areas and indoor plants, are discussed. Two of them, Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio and
Lepidosaphes flava (Signoret), are reported for the first time in Bulgaria. Furthermore, Acizzia jamatonica
(Kuwayama), Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti)
and Cydalima perspectalis (Walker) have been found in new localities. Metcalfa pruinosa Say has
widened its host range in Bulgaria. Additional distribution data are also provided about Aulacaspis
yasumatsui Takagi and Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner). Details on current status, host plants,
zoogeographical origin and probable pathways of introduction into Bulgaria are reported for each species.
Morphological and biological remarks are given for C. perspectalis and C. sinensis.

(Forestry Ideas, 2016, Vol. 22, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 227

Ecophysiological method for assessment
of Orchestes fagi L. infestation on common
beech trees

Petya Dimitrova-Mateva (1)*, Svetoslav Anev (1), Simona Georgieva (1), Ganka
Chaneva (2), and Nikolina Tzvetkova (1)

1. University of Forestry, 10 St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd. 1797, Sofia, Bulgaria.
2. Faculty of Biology, Sofia University ’St. Kliment Ohridski‘,
8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd. 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria


The paper presents an applicable method for investigation and assessment of the damage
caused by beech weevil (Orchestes fagi L.) on the leaves of Common beech (Fagus sylvatica
L.). Selecting of appropriate ecophysiological approaches is a workable tool for an assessment of
leafminers’ effects as these methods can be applied for leaves with a gradient of damaged area.
Thus, it can be established a tendency in the attack effect and determined the limits of the plant
protective system. This methodology was applied successfully and can provide reliable set of
data for clarifying the relationship between the mining larvae, developing in the infested leaves,
and the host plant. The application of this methodology in other environmental conditions and
woody species could contribute to a development of biological means for a control on the leafminers
in the forests.

(Forestry Ideas, 2016, Vol. 22, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 282


Svetoslav Anev

Department of Dendrology, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski blvd.,
1797 Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail:


The balance between CO2 income during photosynthesis and H2O release during transpiration
is strongly influenced by differentiation of leaves within the canopy. Gas-exchange and water use
efficiency (WUE) were studied in respect to branch position in the crown of 37-year-old Norway
spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] tree, growing in the Western Stara Planina. The needles of the
middle-crown branches had significantly highest rate of net photosynthesis compared to the upper
and lower crown. The rate of transpiration and vapour pressure deficit gradually decreased
to the upper-crown branches. The highest water use efficiency was established for the needles
in the top of the crown. The lowest photosynthesis and WUE, along with the highest transpiration
and vapour pressure deficit of the branches in the crown base of the tree are indicative for the
diminished adaptive capacity. The study results could contribute to better understanding of the
physiological mechanisms of branch self-pruning.

(Forestry Ideas, 2016, Vol. 22, No. 1) [Download]
Downloads: 282


Sonia Smirnakou and Kalliopi Radoglou*

Department of Forestry and Management of Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus
University of Thrace (DUTH), Pandazidou 193, 68200 Orestiada, Greece. E-mails: sosmirnakou@,*


Previous studies have demonstrated that monochromatic LEDs could be used as an alternative
to conventional lighting sources for cultivation of several species in artificial environments,
which have led to satisfactory results. However, the application of LED lights of continuous spectrum
as an artificial light source in plant growth chambers has not been tested yet. This study
examines the influence of five different LED light qualities (L20AP67, AP673L, G2, AP67 & NS1)
that emitted a mixture of continuous spectrum based on various percentages of ultraviolet, blue,
green, red, far-red and infra-red radiation or Fluorescent light (FL as a control) on growth of sweet
chestnut seedlings into mini-plug containers during one month indoor cultivation. Leaf characteristics
of chestnut seedlings were better promoted under LEDs by means of faster leaf formation of
greater leaf area that showed significantly higher stomata and epidermal cell number compared
to the FL light. Therefore among LEDs G2, NS1 and AP67 showed the greatest effect by inducing
significantly higher stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI%) and cell density (CD) compared
to the FL light and L20AP67 LED. Similar shoot development was found irrespective of light
spectrum; however, significantly longer roots were formed by the L20AP67 than the FL light that
showed the shortest. Further, root system architecture analysis revealed that NS1 and AP673L
LEDs produced seedlings with significantly higher root fibrosity index compared to the FL. Dry
weight accumulation especially of the shoots and roots of the seedlings treated with the AP673L
was the highest by far. In contrast, FL light demonstrated the lowest dry weight mass thus exhibited
the lowest R/S ratio compared to LEDs. These results provide new strategies for using LEDs
of continuous spectrum for adequate cultivation protocols into growth chambers for Castanea
sativa Mill. and possibly other forest tree species.

(Forestry Ideas, 2016, Vol. 22, No. 1) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-9