Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 | 21-23
Downloads: 456


Dinko Dinev (1)* and Jelio Vardunski (2)

1. Southeаstern State Forest Enterprise, Sliven. Address for correspondence: Izgrev Complex,
Bl. 36, 8008 Burgas, Bulgaria. *E-mail:
2. Lestrans LTD, 22a M. Tolbuhin str., 8120 Kameno, Bulgaria. E-mail:


In Eastern Stara planina Mountain, during a 3-year period with some intermittences due to repair
works, the following technological schemes have been studied and implemented during practical
work: 1) felling of trees using a chain saw, haulage of whole trees by a skidder, felling, delimbing,
bucking, cut-to-length (CTL) of full trees by a harvester and assortments transportation by a forwarder;
2) felling and a primary processing of trees by chain saws, haulage of assortments by a skidder
and transportation by a forwarder, and 3) felling and primary processing of trees by a harvester and
forwarder of assortments. The application of the respective technological scheme depends on the
available forest-exploitation conditions. The following machines have been used for the purpose:
TK 40 Bolgar and Universal-651 skidders, John Deere 1270D harvester and John Deere 1110D
forwarder. The machines John Deere 1270D and John Deere 1110D have been bought second
hand (as used machines). The studies have been conducted in Black pine plantations (Pinus nigra
Arn.) and Scots pine ones (Pinus silvestris L.), growing on terrains of a hilly and up to a mountain
character. The conditions are as it could be expected after fires, windfalls, snowbreaks, and calamities
but appropriate for works which are to be performed by the studied machines. The forestry targets
include a clearance of the above mentioned areas, i.e. the clear cuttings. Productivities from 26 up
to 68 m3/day have been achieved being its lower limit related to a technology where a chain saw is
used while the upper one is related to a completely mechanized technology.As for the harvester and
the forwarder, their productivities differ one from another, taking into consideration that the size of the
trees exerts greater influence on the work performed by the harvester. Multi-operational machines
operators‘ professionalism and experience are significantly important for the implementation of the
works and both professionalism and experience are gained by knowledge obtained in the course of
a specialized training.

(Forestry Ideas, 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 513

Effects of thinnings on plants and fungi
biodiversity in a Pinus nigra plantation:
a case study in central Italy

Paolo Cantiani (2), Isabella De Meo (1)*, Claudia Becagli (2), Elisa Bianchetto (1),
Cecilia Cazau (2), Stefano Mocali (1), and Elena Salerni (3)

1. Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Agrobiology and
Pedology Centre (CREA-ABP), D’Azeglio 30, 50121 Firenze, Italy. E-mails: isabella.*,;
2. Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Research Centre
for Forest Ecology and Silviculture (CREA-SEL), Via S. Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy.
3. Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita- Università degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4,
53100 Siena, Italy. E-mail:


One of the main consequence of intensive forest exploitation, overgrazing and recurring
wildfires over the centuries is the decay of forest cover and soil erosion. In many areas of
the Italian Apennines, Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) plantations were established after the
Second World War to improve forest soil quality in marginal and eroded soils. The main aim of
these reforestations was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. This was a
preparatory step to the reintroduction of broadleaf trees originally living in the same areas, such
as oaks and beech trees, and thus to the reestablishment of mixed forests (renaturalisation).
Currently in Tuscany, the key functions of these stands are the protection against soil erosion
and the hydrological regulation of catchments. In order to guarantee the multifunctional role of
these stands, it is necessary to realize silvicultural treatments finalized to the renaturalisation.
The present research, carried out in a mountainous area in Tuscany, aims to evaluate the
effects of different thinning (selective and traditional) on floristic and mycological diversity. Six
experimental plots were established, and different intensity of thinning were applied. Results
highlight that the intensity of thinning is directly related to the stability of the stands and also
increases the overall biodiversity. In particular, positive effects were evidenced on marketable
mushrooms production and on floristic diversity.

(Forestry Ideas, 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 472


Amireslam Bonyad and Mehrdad Mirzaei*

Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh sara
Po. Box 1144, Iran. E-mails:;*


In this study, we investigated line transect sampling methods with k-fixed trees (k = 2, 3, 4 and 5) to estimate quantitative variables in Zagros open forests in the west of Iran. Accurate measuring and commercial benefits are two aspects of sampling methods that are important for forest managers. The results of full callipering inventory indicated that density above 12.5 cm DBH, basal area and canopy were 68.04 trees∙ha–1, 15.16 m2 ∙ha–1 and 35.71 % ha–1 respectively. Based on ANOVA test, mean of measured variables in the line transect sampling methods with k = 2, 3, 4 and 5 were statistical different (P = 0.00). The results of study showed that the mean of density, basal area and canopy variables using transect sampling with k = 5 trees were closest to actual means derived from full callipering inventory. Our findings showed that line transect sampling method with k = 5 fixed trees had reliable results and was statistically reliable, efficient and practical method to estimate of the quantitative characteristics in Zagros open forest area.

(Forestry Ideas, 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 421

Growth and Performance of Macedonian
pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) in Bavaria against
the backdrop of climate change

Martin Bachmann (1), Daniela Rommel (2), and Bernd Stimm (3)*

1. Department for Food, Agriculture and Forestry, Ebersberg, Bahnhofstrasse 23, D-85560
Ebersberg, Germany. E-mail:
2. Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL,
Länggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland. E-mail:
3. Institute of Silviculture, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2,
85354 Freising, Germany. *E-mail:


One strategy for mitigating the effects of climate change on forests in an uncertain future is
the allocation of risk across a portfolio of different tree species. Since the beginning of 2009, a
project of the Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) has sought to identify warm- and droughttolerant
exotic tree species suited to conditions expected in Bavaria under climate change. As an
outcome of this process, six potential non-native tree species were selected for the establishment
of species trials in Germany (Bavaria and Thuringia), Austria and southern Switzerland. Parallel
to the creation of young trial plantations, one species – Pinus peuce – was analyzed in detail in
67- to 105-year-old planted stands in Bavaria to obtain complementary information. This effort
sought to quantify growth and performance of this species and compare these results with those
of other tree species already grown successfully in Central European forests, e.g. Norway spruce,
Scots pine, Еastern white pine, and Douglas fir. Measurements in four small planted stands in
the Grafrath Experimental Forest showed mean DBHs from 26.8 to 43.8 cm and average heights
from 24.1 to 28.4 m, with single tree volumes ranging from 0.7 to 1.8 m³. Due to drought conditions,
particularly during a period of increased temperatures, the radial growth rate of P. peuce
was considerably reduced in 1976 and 2003 and beyond, after which the species recovered only
moderately. As a consequence of decreasing precipitation and more frequent late spring frosts, P.
exhibited strong negative reactions in annual ring growth. In general, these trees reacted
positively to increasing mean annual temperature. Despite high volume production, the results
revealed several uncertainties about the suitability of P. peuce for southern Bavaria under conditions
of climate change. Based on the assumption of further decreases in precipitation in the near
future, P. peuce can be expected to suffer increasingly from drought stress and to demonstrate
decreased annual increment. Nevertheless, the species seems to be appropriate for afforestation
in montane areas because of its proven resistance to wind throw and snow break.

(Forestry Ideas, 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 489


Nazanin Hamrang (1)*, Hassan Pourbabaei (1), Mehrdad Nikooy (1),
and David Pothier (2)

1. Department of Forestry, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Guilan,
Somehsara, P. O. Box 1144, Guilan, Iran. *E-mail:
2. Centre d’étude de la forêt, Département des sciences du bois et de la forêt, Pavillon
Abitibi-Price, 2405 rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.


This study investigates the effect of canopy gaps created by single-tree selection cutting on regeneration density and diversity in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests of Northern Iran. Five gaps within each of three different size classes (small (100–200 m2), medium (200–300 m2), and large (300–400 m2)), together with 15 control areas located in the undisturbed forest surrounding each gap were randomly selected. Abundance of tree regeneration was measured in 4-m2 quadrates established within each gap and control area. The percent cover of herbaceous species and litter depth was also quantified. Shannon diversity, Smith-Wilson evenness and Margalef richness indices were then computed for each quadrate. Results indicated that percent cover of herbaceous species increased significantly with increasing gap size while the opposite was observed for litter depth. Species richness and Shannon diversity index values were higher in gaps than in control areas, but significant differences were only detected between medium size gaps and control areas. With the exception of large gaps, regeneration density was higher in gaps than in control areas. These results indicate that natural tree regeneration in beech forests of Northern Iran tends to be maximized at intermediate levels of canopy gap size, which also correspond to intermediate levels of litter depth and percent cover of herbaceous species.

(Forestry Ideas, 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 | 21-23